Terrazzo is a composite material, poured in place or precast, which is used for floor and wall treatments. It consists of marble, quartz, granite, glass, or other suitable chips, sprinkled or unsprinkled, and poured with a binder that is cementitious, chemical, or a combination of both.
Terrazzo is cured and then ground and polished to a smooth surface or otherwise finished to produce a uniformly textured surface. It comes either in tiled format or can be cast insitu.
Ceramic is just clay that's formed, glazed and baked. And remarkably, for ceramic tile's long, illustrious history, very little has changed. The same ingredients are still used, and the process is still basically the same, though it has been updated and mechanized to allow for faster production.
Ceramic tiles were once made by hand. Wet clay was fashioned into shape, sometimes with the help of a wooden mold, and then left to dry in the sun or fired in a small brick kiln. While a few artisans still craft ceramic tiles by hand, the majority of ceramic tiles made today go through a process known as dry pressing or dust pressing.
Ceramic tile makes for a beautiful wall and flooring material, but it's more than
just a pretty face. These tiles also boast of durability and natural resistance to
enemies including fire, frost, moisture and stains.
Porcelain tiles are ceramic tiles with a water absorption rate of less than 0.5 percent that are used to cover floors and walls. They can either be unglazed or glazed. Although porcelain has been used for making tiles for many years, only modern production methods and quantities has made the porcelain tile available competitively.
Porcelain is much harder than ordinary ceramic tiles and is usually selected, despite its higher price etc. in areas where strength is more important, such as floors and commercial use, or in areas of high wear and hard knocks. However porcelain is denser and therefore heavier to handle; it is generally more expensive. Being harder, it is harder to cut and drill, which may make fitting harder and more expensive. Polished porcelain may need sealing, where ordinary glazed tiles do not. Porcelain, being denser and heavier than ordinary ceramic tiles, needs a stronger adhesive to hold the weight on walls.
Therefore typical ready-mix adhesives are not recommended for porcelain.
When porcelain is first made, it is not absorbent, but the polishing process for
making the unglazed surface shiny cuts into the surface, making it more porous
and prone to absorbing stains, in the same way as natural stone tiles do.
Unless they have a suitable, long-lasting treatment put on by the manufacturer,
such as nanotech treatment, polished porcelain tiles will need sealing.
Porcelain sealers are either water-based, which is cheaper, but does not last
as long, or solvent-based.
Marble is a non-foliated metamorphic rock composed of recrystallized carbonate minerals, most commonly calcite or dolomite. Geologists use the term "marble" to refer to metamorphosed limestone. Marble is commonly used as a building material.
The largest dimension marble application is tile. Marble production is dominated by 4 countries that account for almost half of world production of marble and decorative stone. Italy is the world leader in marble production, with 20% share in global marble production followed by China with 16% of world production. India is third ranking with 10% of world production, followed by Spain in fourth ranking position with 6% of world production.
Next to diamonds, granite is one of the hardest substances known. In fact, granite is virtually indestructible and will last a lifetime with proper care. It resists cuts, scratches and scuffing, as well as heat. Granite flooring does not accumulate bacteria, mold and allergens, thus keeping your kitchen in top hygienic form. In addition, spills are easily cleaned up with one swipe.
Granite tile flooring comes in various man made finishes. You can have a high gloss finish, in which the granite crystals can be clearly seen, or you can go in for a matte finish, which is also known as the honed finish. A satin finish or leather finish is an intermediate between high gloss and honed finish. Then there is also the flamed and brushed finish.
When it comes to cleaning granite floors, it’s a cinch. They can be vacuumed or dust mopped. They should also be wet mopped every week or so. To
maintain the gorgeous beauty of a granite floor, regular sealing is advised.